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Learning—the Elements of Teaching 3.1

ALL TEACHING involves the transmission of knowledge, like the handing-on of the torch in the Olympic Games. Just as the flame must stay alive while the torch passes from hand to hand, so knowledge must remain kindled if anything is to be transferred from teacher to student. If the fire of knowledge is extinguished in teachers, even the best students are unlikely to reignite the torch and carry it to its ultimate destination-the achievement of understanding.

读后感:
这一整段都很精彩。所有的教学都包括传递知识,如同传递奥运火炬一样。在火炬传递时,火焰必须保持燃烧,知识也是如此。如果知识的火焰在老师手中就熄灭了,即使是最好的学生也不可能重燃火焰并传递到终点-即成功地理解知识。

Teachers are presumed to possess knowledge, which their teaching communicates to their students. It follows thatin order to teach they must know what they teach and know how to teach it; and in order to teach effectively, they must know deeply and well. Teaching requires more than knowing how to learn, although that is important. Above all, teaching requires learning itself; and, if possible under the demanding conditions that face so many teachers, it requires mastery of a subject.

读后感:
老师必须知道教什么以及如何去教。(大部分培训机构的老师,甚至包括我在教学初期,都只是知道教什么,到底如何教涉及到的东西太多了,如学生程度,教材难度,课程设计等,这些很难一开始就知道。)

By learning we usually mean one or all of three things: either the act of gaining knowledge—“to learn something"-or the knowledge gained by virtue of that act - "that which is known"-or the process of gaining knowledge- "learning how." All three are essential to good teaching. And each kind of learning is and must be a lifelong pursuit, not something that, as is so often mistakenly believed, fills only the years before teachers enter their classrooms. 1.True teachers always seek (often they must struggle) to learn more, to remain current with what is known about their subjects, to keep those subjects fresh and exciting enough to sustain the exhausting act of teaching day in and day out, year after year-in sum, to expand their ability to teach.The need to keep learning has to do also with the nature of knowledge itself. Often thought to be static, knowledge is ever-changing and ever-growing; the known is never the same from one day to the next. Thus to possess and master knowledge, one must wrestle with it constantly, fashioning and refashioning what one knows and how to present it. Knowledge taunts us with its difficulty, its incompleteness, its ambiguity.As Aeschylus reminds us in the Agamemnon, 2.to learn is to suffer.

读后感:
1.老师应该持续学习,时时更新知识库,为的是给每天枯燥的上课下课行程增加新鲜感和趣味性。(最近悟出的原则是:课堂枯燥你就输了。我真的不希望自己的学生有和我初中高中偶尔上课时的无聊感受。)
2.学习肯定是要遭受些什么的。(我理解的是,学习知识,肯定是要付出的。不过,获得知识的成就感远远大于看完一集电视,可能仅次于买了一件超级好看舒适的衣服吧。)

Yet many mistakenly believe that teachers, at least at the precollegiate levels, can get by without learning, that they can just step into the classroom after gaining the minimum amount of knowledge in order to justify their being paid while they pursue their real love - say, coaching football - from which they cannot otherwise earn a living. 1.But students know better, as the many jokes about coaches in the classroom and ill-prepared teachers attest. 2.Students usually know which of their teachers think teaching a mere job and which of them approach it as a learned calling. The most ambitious students quickly spot the teacher without command of a subject or the one who has no genuine thirst for knowledge; they mark that teacher as lacking in authority, as someone whose ignorance of a subject poses a threat to their own well-being by preventing them from learning all they might be taught. And they are right, for their wellbeing as students depends on their teachers' knowledge, and on their teachers' willingness to learn more all the time.

读后感:
1.但是学生知道很多。(很多老师用自己有限的知识教来教去,觉得自己拿点工资去发展其他爱好也不错,但是学生其实可以看出来。)
2.学生总是知道哪些老师把教学仅仅当做工作,哪些老师是真的热爱。(回想下青少年时代遇到的老师,真的是这样,我也能够看出那个上课让我们自习,自己在讲台上睡着了的语文老师大概属于哪一种了。)

By saying that the true teacher must master a body of knowledge, we distinguish knowledge from information. Much confusion results from mistaking one for the other. 1.Information is to knowledge what sound is to music, the unorganized material out of which the structured result is composed. We do not ask teachers to convey information; we seek information from newspapers, the stock market ticker tape, or price tags on items in a store. Instead,2.we ask teachers to transmit knowledge, that which is organized and formally known about a subject-facts, findings, explanations, hypotheses, and theories accepted for their proven accuracy, significance, beauty, utility, or power.

读后感:
1.信息和知识的区别就像声音和音乐的区别一样。
2.我们不会让老师给我们客观的信息,我们寻求的是被老师证明了的各种事实,发现,解释,假说,理论等。

The struggle to gain and sustain this knowledge is probably the most exacting work of any teacher, and it never ends. True mastery of any subject is probably beyond our reach, but reach we must. Sustained intellectual vitality requires a self-imposed sentence to hard labor- the kind of labor, however, that liberates rather than imprisons, with all the satisfactions and rewards of liberation.

No one should think that mastery of a body of knowledge is easy. It is devilishly difficult, necessitating a degree of devotion, concentration, discipline, and effort demanded by few other pursuits. And because knowledge is always a work in progress, it is never complete; we must run to keep up with it.

读后感:
因为知识始终在进步,所以它永远没有尽头,因此我们必须追赶上知识的步伐。

Mastering a body of knowledge well enough to convey it to others is a lonely task; it is usually a silent conversation between someone who is learning and others-authors, scientists, artists- many of whom are dead, known only through their words on the page, the symbols with which they have worked, or the art they have created.Often, too, learning must proceed with- out external incentives or rewards-no additional pay, no more promotions. Gaining knowledge is private, individual, solitary. How then is knowledge sustained? And why should it be?

读后感:
获取知识并把知识传递给其他人是一项孤独的任务。这是学习者和作家,科学家,可能去世的艺术家之间的沉默的对话,只能通过文字,符号,艺术来传达交流。

For the most skilled and devoted teachers, knowledge comes through an intense love of learning and of a subject, a love whose origins may be mysterious and unknown, awakened perhaps by a chance encounter with a children's book, by a parent's praise, or by a cherished teacher's encouragement-by something special that forever marked the future teacher. Most devoted teachers were "hooked" early by some distinctive curiosity, whose magic and mystery continues to hold them; and thus teachers are always trying similarly to "hook" their own students. Knowledge, to say nothing of keenness of instruction, is also sustained by a never-ceasing aspiration to learn more, an insatiable yearning to know and to understand. So, too, knowledge is strengthened by teachers' openness to students' beguiling ability to involve them in their own learning, to pull teachers in with their own excitement and curiosity.

So teachers are and must be thinkers in their own right, not just "doers" who happen to teach and possess the skill to do so. Their minds must be continually restocked and nourished. They must become capable of gaining and using knowledge on their own, independent of others, and of leading others to do so, too. True teachers liberate the thinking of others.

读后感:
因此老师本身是而且必须是思想家,而不是只教授学习技巧的实行者。他们的思想必须一直保持更新。

What, then, does it mean to say that a teacher must possess learning?

Learning—the Elements of Teaching 3.1
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