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Order—the Elements of Teaching 6.3

FOR MORE THAN TWENTY YEARS students had been stunned by their first meeting with Peggy Minton. Other teachers whose instruction they had enjoyed or endured in the previous eight grades had shown varying degrees of organization and discipline in their styles of teaching, but these teachers all seemed vague, uncoordinated, and dilatory compared with Ms. Minton, who taught first-year Latin with a zestful diligence that many regarded as fanatical.

今天讲的主角是Peggy Minton老师。相对于其他老师在第一节课上制定的模糊托拉的课堂规则而言,Peggy和学生的第一次会面让学生们震惊。

Ninth-graders come in all shapes and sizes, but most of hers were taller than Peggy Minton, who measured little more than five feet from the top of her plaited hair to the toes of her sensible shoes. But what she lacked in height she made up for in energy by establishing control in the first moments of meeting every new group of students.

九年级的学生身高大多数会比Peggy老师高一些,但她用第一次课见面时的能量满满弥补了身高的缺陷。

In the early fall, when she entered the classroom for the first time, she would put her books and papers down on her desk, and stand facing her students and awaiting their complete silence. She would remain quite still, almost on tiptoe, her trim figure poised like a bird about to take flight, her eyes darting about the room as though deciding where she might land. When the silence was absolute and the waiting had become an embarrassment for the more sensitive, she would speak.

一进教室她首先等着学生彻底安静下来,才会开始讲话。

"Good morning." There would be an inarticulate murmur, accompanied by some scraping of the feet, nervous giggling, some coughing. When the silence resumed, Ms. Minton would say rather sharply, "That was not an appropriate response. I expect you to wish me good morning clearly and in unison. I have greeted you civilly, and I expect no less in return. We'll go over it again. Good morning."

她说完“早上好”以后,学生的回应是各种杂七杂八的动脚声,咳嗽声等。这是Peggy就会跟正经地告诉学生,这些都不是一个合适的反应,我期待的是你们整齐地回复我“早上好。”。我们再来一次。

This time the students would usually manage to coordinate a coherent "Good morning," and Ms. Minton would continue. "That's better. I start every class that way.It tells me that I have your complete attention, and that we can get to work immediately.But there's a boy3'-there would always be one-"in the back row who has something to say.Yes, you- I'm sorry I don't know your names yet-you have a question or comment?"

这次学生回复很整齐。“这样就很好,我每次都会这么开始课堂,这样我就知道你们全神贯注在我这里。”

"No, Ms. Minton." "Then you're wasting our time by making comments to your neighbor. What's your name?"
"Julian Johnson."
"Thank you, Julian. I have learned at least one of your names. Now tell me what you have learned so far."
The boy would frown as if thought was a strain and then inevitably say something like, "You start every class by saying 'Good morning.' "
'Correct - and . . . ?"
Another pause for thought, and then, as if by sudden inspiration,
"You want us to say 'Good morning' back to you."
"And why do I do that?"
"Because it means you have our complete attention and we're
ready to start work."
"You've learned a good deal, Julian, haven't you? And one
more thing? "
"We can't talk to each other during class."
"Full marks! Let's proceed. Pencils and paper ready!"

有个学生在和同桌说话,老师叫他起来问他是否有什么问题。学生说没有。老师说“那你和同桌耳语就是在浪费我们的时间了。”问了学生今天学到了什么,学生几乎把所有都说了一遍,包括如何回复“早上好”,为什么要这么做,上课不许互相讲话。老师非常满意地夸奖了这位同学。
这个场景让我膜拜了。本来学生被老师叫起来批评很不开心的,最后却可能因为回答对了老师的问题得到老师的赞扬而很开心,这样他牢牢记住了这些规定,其他同学也和他一起记了2遍。膜拜膜拜!

The class would fall apart in all directions struggling with three-ring binders, pencil boxes, and book bags, the scene resembling nothing more than multiple tag-team wrestling with none of the contestants in an upright position. "This is taking much too long," Ms. Minton would declare, still waiting for the last students to find their pens and pencils. "So here's a new rule: when you say 'Good morning' to me, you will have paper ready in front of you and a pen or pencil in your hand. Ready to work means ready to write! Or, as we say in this class, Paratus laborare, paratus scribere."

学生拿笔和纸很拖沓。老师再次明确指出“我说早上好的时候,你们的笔和纸已经在桌子上了,可以直接写字了。”

As she spoke these words, she would write her last words on
the blackboard in both English and Latin, turn around and say briskly, "Write it down!" The class would copy the words-
"Ready to work means ready to write!" Every face in the room
would look up for her next instruction.

As Ms. Minton began, so she continued. By the end of fifty
minutes, she had outlined the purposes of her course in Latin
for the entire year, memorized the names of each of her thirty students, had direct conversation with at least twenty of them, introduced them to the textbook, given them their first assignment, and wasted not one second of her time or theirs.

在接下来的50分钟里,她已经规划好了一整年拉丁语课的目标,记住每个学生的名字,和至少20个学生直接对话了,给他们介绍了课本,布置了第一堂课的作业。并且,没有浪费她和学生的一秒钟。
膜拜的同时,我深深明白这些其实需要教学经验。当然,不一定要很久很久。I mean,最快速的积累经验的方法就是好好利用每一节上过的课。一开始做的肯定不如这位老师完美,但重点在每节课后反思总结并改正,而不是明天照常继续。

Every student in the class formed the same first impression: that she knew exactly what she was doing, that she was determined to do what she set out to do, and that it would be best to avoid crossing her or failing to come up to her expectations. Even the brightest of them found their new teacher sharper, better informed, and more thoroughly organized than they were; they recognized in her a spirit of adventure and of challenge; and they were left a little breathless at the end of the hour.

学生对这位老师的印象是,她明确知道自己要干什么,她决心要做她准备做的事,最好不要打断她的节奏。

First impressions are one thing, but staying the course was another of Peggy Minton's virtues. She maintained her
brisk style and hustling encouragement of students consistently throughout the year. Not only that, her standards were rigorous and high. Because of that, most of her students aspired to achieve them, and those who could not do so received too much reinforcement from her for their efforts to feel that they had failed. In addition, she fully explained her grading aims and methods in general terms to the class at large and in frequent conferences with students and sometimes with their parents. As a result of what others saw as her fairness and just expectations, her students usually rose beyond their own conception of their potential; the consensus among them, even among the most grudging, was that they had never worked so hard for any other teacher.

第一印象是一回事,整个课程都保持下来才是她的能耐。她的标准很严格很高。并会把评分规则频繁地向学生甚至家长解释。结果是,她的学生比在其他任何课上都努力。

First-year Latin is mostly a matter of memorization. The
many inflections of the parts of speech, their significance in sentences, and the scrupulous accuracy with which these distinctions must be identified, interpreted, and translated-all these tasks were simplified for her students by Ms. Minton's careful and patient explanations. Her students prided themselves on being able to distinguish between scribit, scribet, and scribat; and their understanding of the forms of English grammar marched right along with their acquisition of this strange, foreign, and long-"dead'' language. Learn the rules, memorize the exceptions, and apply your knowledge to the business of translation, Ms. Minton would remind her students continually.She had little need to enforce discipline in her classes. Her students sensed that any breach of good order would prompt a sharp reaction in a teacher who insisted that every action on their part be deliberate and appropriate. They knew how she reacted when the most trifling matters went wrong; they did not like to imagine what her reaction would be to any major breakdown of good order in her classroom. Nor would she waste her time with the equivocations of the mischievous and the indolent. She gave them such short shrift that they enjoyed only the pity of their peers-a far cry from the popularity and admiration that had prompted their attempts at disruption in some other classrooms.

她不用在课堂再去强调纪律,因为学生们感知得到任何违反课程秩序的事情都会引起老师敏锐的反应。

At the end of the year, most of her students came to the same conclusion about Ms. Minton's teaching: that she was clear, demanding, and fair, and that, if you paid attention, you always knew exactly what you had to do to succeed. The clarity of structure in her classroom enabled all of them, even the most typically lazy or uncaring, to learn. Even though they wondered if she was not something of an oddball to have such an enthusiastic interest in such a quantity of detail, the lessons of methodical organization, discipline, and industry stayed with them long after they had forgotten the curious inflections of Latin verbs.

学期末的时候,她的大多数学生都知道这个老师的教学了,她很清晰,公正,对学生有所要求。如果你好好学习,你就会明确知道要学得好的话应该怎么做。甚至最懒惰最无所谓的学生都在她的课上学到了东西。
并且,老师教给他们的方法论的组织,纪律,勤奋将被一直记在心中,而在课堂上学到的那些拉丁文的动词可能早就被遗忘了。(有些感人。老师传授的不是课本知识,是知识。)

Order—the Elements of Teaching 6.3
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