话题: Ancient Egyptian Glass
Listen to part of a lecture in an ancient history class.
Professor: Ok, last time we were discussing trade and commerce during the Bronze Age. And I said a little over three thousand years ago, there was quite a lively trade among the countries along the Mediterranean Sea. People are making objects out of bronzes and they were using bronze tools to make other goods. And they develop trade networks to trade these goods with other countries around the Mediterranean. One of the things they traded was glass. And recently there was an archeological excavation in Egypt, on the Nile River around where enters the Mediterranean Sea where they discovered an ancient glass factory. Robert?
Bronze Age 青铜器时代
Mediterranean Sea 地中海
archeological excavation 考古挖掘点
连读objects out of
1.recently there was an archeological excavation最近的考古发现，到底是什么
Robert: I thought our textbook said the Egyptians imported their glass from other countries.
Professor: Well, until now that’s what the evidence seemed to suggest. I mean, we have some evidence that suggested that the Egyptians were making glass objects, but not glass.
Robert: Ok. Am……Am I missing something? They are making glass but they are not making glass?
Professor: I said they were making glass objects, right? You see, it was previously thought that they weren’t actually making the raw glass itself that they were importing unfinished glass from Mesopotamia, which today is a region consisting of Iraq and parts of Syria and Turkey and Iran, and simply reworking it. Most archeologists believed that the glass factories were in Mesopotamia because that’s where the oldest known glass remains come from.
raw glass 玻璃原材料
You see, there was two stages of glass making. The primary production stage where they made disks of raw glass. And there was the secondary stage where they melted the raw glass, the glass disks, and created decorative objects, so, or whatever. And from this new Egyptians’ site, we learned that the primary production stage had several steps.
First they took quartz, a colorless transparent mineral and crushed it. Then they took that crushed quartz and mixed it with plant ash. A plant ash is just what it sounds like, the ashes left after you burnt plant material. They slowly heated this mixture at a relatively low temperature in small vessels, containers like jars made out of clay. And that yielded a kind of glassy material.They took this glassy material and grounded it up into a powder and then they used metallic dye to color it. After that, they poured the colored powder out into disk-shaped molds and heated it up to very high temperatures. So that it melted. After cooled, they break the molds, and inside there were the glass disks. These disks were shipped out to other sites within Egypt and places around the Mediterranean. Then in the secondary phase, the disks were reheated, and shaped into decorative objects. Susan?
1.步骤标志词：first, then,after that
Susan: So what kind of objects were people making back then?
Professor: Well, the most common objects we found, mostly in Egypt and Mesopotamia, the most common objects were beads. One thing the Egyptian were very very good at was imitating precious stones. They created some beads that look so much like emeralds and pearls that was very difficult to distinguish them from the real thing. Em, and……and also beautiful vessels, ah, with narrow necks. They were probably really valuable so they wouldn’t have been used to hold cooking oil or common food items. They were most likely used for expensive liquids, like perfume.
Now the glass made at this factory was mostly red, to get this red color they used copper, in a sophisticated process. Of course, any kind of glass was very valuable so these red bottles would only have been owned by wealthy people. In fact, because it was so difficult to make, and sort of mysterious and complicated, it was probably a product produced for the royal family. And they probably used glass to show their power. Also, beautiful expensive objects made great gifts if you are looking to establish or strength the political alliances. And it is quite possible that the ancient Egyptians were actually exporting glass, not just making it or importing it. The trade with Mesopotamia was probably a friendly mutual trade because a Mesopotamia glass was usually white or yellow. So Mesopotamians might accept something like, we will give you two white disks for two red disks. There is no proof of that, at least not yet.
2.是否有证据There is no proof of that, at least not yet.
1.What is the lecture mainly about?
A. New information about glass production and use in ancient Egypt.
B. Whether Egyptians or Mesopotamians were the first to invent glass.
C. Differences between Egyptian glass and other kinds of glass.
D. Reasons why ancient Egyptians imported glass from other countries.
答案： A，根据前面2段得出答案，new information对应开头And recently there was an archeological excavation in Egypt，其余选项都是细节
2.What is the importance of the archaeological evidence recently found in Egypt?
A. It supports the theory that ancient Egyptians imported glass from Mesopotamia.
B. It proves that ancient Egyptians made glass objects prior to the Bronze Age.
C. It provides the first evidence that glassmaking in the Bronze Age required two different stages.
D. It shows that ancient Egyptians were producing raw glass.
答案：B，可根据排除法，A中的 ancient Egyptians imported glass from Mesopotamia是学生说的课本这样讲的，跟考古发现无关，排除；B需要整合一些信息进行推断； 老师说there was two stages of glass making，以及，从这个新的发现说明前一个步骤实际上有很多个步骤组成the primary production stage had several steps，并不C选项说的第一个证据表明有2个步骤，有2个步骤是之前就知道的，排除C；老师说we have some evidence that suggested that the Egyptians were making glass objects, but not glass.跟D不一致，排除D。
3.The professor describes a process for making glass disks. Summarize the process by putting the steps in the correct order. Click on a sentence. Then drag it to the space where it belongs.
A.Glass-like material is ground up and dyed blue or red..
B.Powdered material is heated at very high temperatures..
C.Crushed quartz and plant ash are heated at low temperatures..
D.Containers are broken to remove glass disks..
4.Based on the lecture, what are two kinds of glass objects that were valued in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia? Click on 2 answers.
B. Cooking utensils.
答案：AC，参考第6段，提到了bead,以及beautiful vessels，或者holding expensive liquids, like perfume,对应container。
5.According to the professor, what are two reasons why ancient Egyptians exported glass? Click on 2 answers.
A. To build relationships with foreign leaders.
B. To hold cooking oil that was sold in other countries.
C. To get bronze tools from other countries.
D. To acquire colors of glass not made in Egypt.
答案：AD，参考最后一段。文章提到 beautiful expensive objects made great gifts if you are looking to establish or strength the political alliances，对应A；we will give you two white disks for two red disks，对应D。
6.Why does the professor say this:
A. To emphasize that glass objects were only made in ancient Egypt.
B. To find out what the student does not understand.
C. To indicate that there was no contradiction in her previous statement.
D. To correct what she said in her previous statement.
重听部分：Robert: Ok. Am……Am I missing something? They are making glass but they are not making glass?
Professor: I said they were making glass objects, right?